The House Servants Directory: An African American Butlers 1827 Guide (Dover African-American Books)
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Goulding, ; M S and two by Charles Dibdin, "Negro Philosophy. Hewitt, ? D54 Case. Gilfert, ? An vol. At the same time as black music was gain- ing popularity, pseudo-African-American songs were laying the groundwork for the minstrel theater. How much these songs owed to anony- mous black musicians is still a matter of dis- pute. The caricature they presented of black performers gained wide popularity with white audiences, preparing the way for blacks to enter the professional theater after the Civil War.
Mi A12 V4 , and "Ginger Blue" n. Ai2V vol. A history of the minstrel theater, the most popular American entertainment of the nine- teenth century, can be found in Robert C. The numerous collec- tions of minstrel music found today in the Mu- sic Division attest to its popularity. Examples in- clude John C.
Riley, ; M1. A12I vol. These books, with their oblong format and their settings in four-part chorus, parodied the Glee Books popular in America in the s. The versions they print are some- times so corrupted that they cannot be sung. One song bears the note "If dese words will not go wid dis music, probably some other will. Several pieces demonstrate the existence of black Creole music during the first half of the nineteenth century.
The first identified use of African- American folk thematic material in a public concert was per- formed by its composer Louis Moreau Gott- schalk in Paris in Gottschalk, born in New Orleans in , was beginning his concert ca- reer in the s after training in France. Draw- ing on his memories of the black music he had heard as a child in Louisiana, he introduced his own compositions, "Bamboula" and "La Sa- vane," written between and G are repre- sented in the Music Division by editions from a much later date than RG68 Even as slaves, blacks were able to make an impact on American culture by creativity in mu- sic and other endeavors.
From the seventeenth century on, slave owners began to emancipate slaves for various reasons and other blacks bought their own freedom or ran away. Thus, in every region free black communities began to draw from the cultures of Africa and Europe to produce a new and different heritage. These African-Americans were usually emanci- pated bv reason of diligent work, good conduct, familial connections, or commendable service. The methods for manumission included court actions, instructions in owners' wills, purchase of one's own or family members' freedom with money earned when hired out, or governmen- tal decrees such as emancipation laws or re- wards for military service.
Throughout the South the law declared that children followed the con- dition of the mother. Thus when children were born to a free mother, they were free also. Although Dunmore was slow to act on this promise, thou- sands of black families eventually fled to free- dom behind British lines. G3 , by Ronald M. Gephart, a Manuscript Division historian, in- cludes information about sources which discuss s I a v e r y a s a wa r i ssu e a n d bla cks a s pa r t ici pa n ts in the war, beneficiaries of the war, and mem- bers of the labor force.
N3Q3 , which has a useful bibliography, discusses the reluctance of white Americans to allow blacks to bear arms and re- views the military and naval service of African- Americans in both American and British forces as cooks, artisans, guides, spies, sailors, and soldiers. Another studv cited, by William C.
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N3N4 , provides information about the contri- butions of blacks in the revolutionary era as soldiers, community leaders, and intellectuals. Williams, ; 4th ed. Paul Revere's hand-colored etching of the Boston Massacre was effective propaganda for the patriots.
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I, A size. Two other useful studies also cited in Gep- hart are George H. Evans, ? N3K36 The latter was origi- nally published in as an exhibit catalog for the Smithsonian Institution's National Portrait Gallery. The amply illustrated text centers around the African-American pursuit of free- dom in the revolutionary era through petitions, circular letters, court action, British and Ameri- can military service, religious activism, and lit- erary expression.
V8G9 , by June Pur- cell Guild, presents the texts of several private laws relating to Virginia blacks who served in the American Revolution. In the chapter "War and the Negro," a law is cited: During the Revolutionary War, many slaves were enlisted by their owners as substitutes for free per- sons, and were represented to the recruiting offi- cers as free, and afterward the owners, contrary to the principles of justice have attempted to force the slaves to return to servitude. Because such slaves have contributed toward American libertv and independence, they are all deemed free and may sue, in forma pauperis, and may recover dam- ages if detained.
Black Laws of Virginia also has information about an pension that was awarded to a Virginia black man named Aaron Weaver who seived in the navy during the Revolutionary War, receiving "two dangerous wounds in an engagement at the mouth of the York River. Sellers and his coauthors provide useful information about African-Americans who served with the patriots or the crown and about black refugees. In a black seaman, Crispus Attucks, was killed by British soldiers in Boston along with four others. American pa- triots used annual commemorations of this event — called the Boston Massacre — as a means of stirring revolutionary fervor and anti-British sentiment.
Both the John Adams papers mss, microfilm , Adams Family Papers and the Jabez Fitch diary mss, diary contain descriptions of anniversaries of the Bos- ton Massacre. Paul Revere made probably the best known image from the revolutionary pe- riod when he did the etching known as "The Bloody Massacre perpetrated in King Street Boston on March 5th, Lord Dunmore's announcement promising freedom to all black men who would join him caused a great deal of consternation among the patriots.
Manuscript Division holdings such as the papers of George Johnston in the William Johnston family collection mss, papers , the Edgehill-Randolph collection mss, microfilm of originals at the Massachusetts In- : 52 stitute of Technology, , and the Gar- rett Minor papers mss, papers have information about Dunmore's policies and the colonists' reaction to them.
The Samuel Adams papers mss, photostats of originals at the New York Public Library, include a few letters that discuss the role of blacks in revolu- tionary America. The George Washington col- lection mss, papers and microfilm also includes comment on the debate about us- ing blacks as soldiers. Papers of Continental Congress delegate Henry Laurens mss, papers , microfilm 1 include letters re- lating to his son John's plan for raising a regi- ment of slaves for the Continental Army. In addition to these papers, the Library holds re- productions of original Laurens materials at the South Carolina Historical Society in Charleston.
Two orderly books called Great Britain, Army mss, journals , have information about blacks who were assigned to work for British regiments. At Yorktown, where there were over one thousand African-American laborers and refugees, many blacks suffered from smallpox. A September 15, , entry records that "Great abuses have been committed in victualling the Negroes, the Dep Qr Mr Genl has directions to receive the returns of the different departments, and to appoint a person to attend to the issuing of their provisions.
Americans demanded their return or payment for their value. G68 , edited by K. U54 or Z A MRR alcove , a comprehensive annotated guide to graphics in the Library's prints and photo- graphs collections pertaining to the Revolution- ary era, dating from to The volume indexes "Negroes" and "Africa" but also con- tains images in which blacks appear as part of crowd scenes, as in a German etching where a black man is present at the rear of a crowd pro- testing the Stamp Act in Map holdings help show the location and distribution of the African-American popula- tion during the Revolutionary period.
John R. Woodcut from an antiabolitionist tract entitled Au- thentic and Impartial Narrative. S7W2 Rare 8k. LC- USZ62 -. S3A8 shows loca- tions of Revolutionary War battles, reconstructs the distribution of the slave population for and , and displays the free black population in During the s cartographer Simon Martenet pre- pared such maps for a number of Maryland counties. Published immediately before the Civil War, they give detailed information about the rural and urban landscape of the southern states in the antebellum period GM. Although the emphasis of these maps is white landowner- ship, the Montgomery County, Maryland, map, for example, shows some of the free black home- steads that developed around the Quaker settle- ment of Sandy Spring.
Interestingly, one of the principals involved in the initial surveying of the District of Colum- bia was Benjamin Banneker, a black mathema- tician who worked as a surveyor. No maps bear Banneker's name, but Andrew Ellicott's map of the Territory of Columbia is based on the survey of the boundaries of the ten- mile square district in which Banneker played a role.
Another useful set of maps associated with the early surveys establishing the federal dis- trict is a series of landownership surveys pre- pared by the city surveyor Nicholas King. Some of them, such as the plat for Motley Young's land, show not onlv the mansion house and associated out- buildings but also the slave quarters. The daily lives of free blacks can be glimpsed in such manuscripts as the Roberts Family pa- pers mss, papers , which include documents that African-Americans were re- quired to carry and display upon demand in or- der to verify their free status as well as an contract for the construction of the first African Methodist Episcopal Church in Indiana.
The papers reflect the stiff oppo- sition she encountered in this endeavor and include materials on topics such as slavery, feminism, and the Civil War, One of Miner's correspondents was Harriet Beecher Stowe.
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Hiram Revels, born free in , was the first black United States senator. In an autobio- graphical sketch, now in the Carter G. Woodson collection mss, papers , Revels stresses that during his early years the social cli- mate for free blacks in North Carolina was rela- tively temperate: Prior to the Nat Turner insurrection, in the state of Virginia, the state of North Carolina was noted for its mildness toward its free colored people, whom they allowed to vote, discuss political questions, hold religious meetings, preach the gospel to- gether with some educational advantages.
But af- ter that insurrection they changed their policy in regard to free Negroes.get link
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For at the first meeting of their legislature, laws were passed depriving them of all political, religious, and educational privileges. Carter C. Woodson collection, MSS All of the other slaveholding states which did not have laws forbidding the education of slaves passed similar laws after the Turner rebellion. Writing about the difficulties that enslavement placed on his family, he says, "As my father was a slave he was deprived of the time he oth- erwise should have had. After he had com- pleted his masters work, Z95 J63 , MicRR , originally published in In several states blacks could vote and have free access to public places, but in others they could not.
States changed their rulings re- garding the rights and privileges of free blacks depending on the political climate. Pennsylva- nia had no racial prohibition and some blacks did exercise the right to vote until , when voting in the state was restricted to white males. Blacks were not allowed to vote again until after the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment.
The papers of James G. Birney mss, papers 90 include a journal with research notes, prob- ablv compiled by William Birney in the s, with entries relating to publications, laws, and printed speeches at. B47 Foner's essay includes sections on restriction on freedom, self-purchase, economic status, edu- cation, churches, civic organizations, segrega- tion, riots, voting, the black press, and black professionals. B , edited by John H. Bracey, Jr.
B , edited by Kenneth L.
N4W56 , by Julie Winch, demonstrates the types of struggles that free blacks faced after the passage of the gradual abolition act of Pennsylvania in A satirical series of broadsides about free blacks in Philadelphia in by cartoonist Ed- ward W. Clay, entitled Life in Philadelphia pp pga-A Clay , shows small etchings of fictional- ized, stereotyped "dandies," most of whom are black.
Cartoons such as the series called the Bobalition of Slavery Portfolio no. By African- American musicians had formed bands in Philadelphia that achieved more than local popularity.